When Hudson and other navigators failed to find the Northwest Passage, the Dutch decided to occupy the lands they claimed in the New World and exploit their resources. When it was finished, Minuit brought several families from Fort Orange to settle in the town, and ordered Fort Nassau on the Delaware River evacuated and the garrison transferred to New Amsterdam. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Some of its construction still dates from the Dutch period of what is currently New York City. In June 1665, New Amsterdam was reincorporated under English law as New York City, named after the Duke of York (later King James II). He was the first recorded non-Native American inhabitant of what would eventually become New York City.[6][7]. [33], Major recent historical research has been based on a set of documents that have survived from that period, untranslated. In 1609, Henry Hudson was hired by the Dutch for a voyage of exploration. These surveys, as well as grassroots activities to seek redress of grievances,[17] account for the existence of some of the most important of the early documents. Other colonies owned slaves, too, but there were many more in New Amsterdam. Europeans believed that people were born to a certain role in life, whether they were white or black, male or female, rich or poor. These owners, or patroons, held manorial rights on these estates and were free from taxes for eight years. What is the hink-pink for blue green moray? CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Henry L. Schoolcraft, "The Capture of New Amsterdam,". Instead, people of different nationalities searching for economic opportunities found new hope in New Amsterdam. Faced with the prospect of armed conflict, Twiller was forced to back down and recall the expedition, losing any claims to the Connecticut Valley. Verhulst, with his council, was responsible for the selection of Manhattan as a permanent place of settlement and for situating Fort Amsterdam. Broadway was the main street that led out of town north towards Harlem. They farmed their own lands, sold their produce, and kept the profits beyond what they owed in tax. They cleared land, planted and harvested crops, and built houses, roads, and bridges. In return, they must pay an annual tax in produce and work for the colony whenever their labor was needed. Africans in New Amsterdam wore Dutch clothing, learned the Dutch language, and adopted their customs. It was a trading post, not a religious settlement. U*X*L Encyclopedia of U.S. History. New Amsterdam was a seventeenth-century Dutch colonial town that later became New York City. In the lower Hudson Valley, where more colonists were setting up small farms, Native Americans came to be viewed as obstacles to European settlement. By the 1740s, 20% of New York’s inhabitants were slaves and two out of every five households had at least one. Encyclopedia.com. On August 27, 1664, while England and the Dutch Republic were at peace, four English frigates sailed into New Amsterdam's harbor and demanded New Netherland's surrender, whereupon New Netherland was provisionally ceded by Stuyvesant. By the late 1650s, New Amsterdam experienced a commercial and population boom. At the time four English warships arrived in New Amsterdam’s harbor in 1664, the city was a … He later became first governor of…, NEW NETHERLAND. The land was quickly settled. The mouth of the Hudson River was selected as the ideal place for initial settlement as it had easy access to the ocean while also securing an ice-free lifeline to the beaver trading post near present-day Albany. They basically followed the same laws as the white population, meaning they could own property and testify in court, bear arms in emergencies, attend church, and marry. The price of 60 Dutch guilders in 1626 amounts to around $1,100 in 2012 dollars. In 1626, the director Peter Minuit bought the island of Manhattan for sixty guilders, or $24, from the Canarsee Indians, although the Weckquaesgeeks of the Wappinger Confederation actually had claim to the island. New Netherland governor Willem Kieft's (1597–1647) attempt to collect taxes from the Algonquin tribes for Dutch “protection” provoked the fighting. The maps enable a precise reconstruction of the town. The beginnings of New Amsterdam, unlike most other colonies in the New World, were thoroughly documented in city maps. [contradictory] This was swiftly followed by the Second Anglo-Dutch War, between England and the Dutch Republic. Mormul, Michelle M. "New Amsterdam Who is the longest reigning WWE Champion of all time? SOURCES The Dutch Period—PDF File White New Yorkers—PDF File. The fort also served as the center of trading activity. [10] Troops from the fort used the triangle between the Heerestraat and what came to be known as Whitehall Street for marching drills. Some were welcomed into the Dutch Reformed Church, where they were offered education and religious training, and were allowed to marry and baptize their children. Even though New Amsterdam was the "capital" of New Netherland, it never grew as large or as commercially active as Boston or Philadelphia. When regular church services commenced in New Amsterdam in 1628, Minuit and his brother-in-law (the company's storekeeper) served Pastor Jonas Michaëlius as elders. New York: New York University Press, 1968. It stretched from Manhattan to Albany along both sides of the Hudson River, and eventually included the areas now known as New York and New Jersey, and parts of Delaware and Connecticut. Itinerary Home | List of Sites | Main Map | Learn More | Begin Tour. By 1639, eighteen different languages were spoken within the small community. At the time, beaver pelts were highly prized in Europe, because the fur could be felted to make waterproof hats. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Hudson hoped to discover a "northwest passage," that would allow a ship to cross the entirety of the North American continent and gain access to the Pacific Ocean, and from there, India. Peter Stuyvesant In 1647, Peter Stuyvesant became the Director General of New Netherland. [9] The families were then dispersed to Fort Wilhelmus on Verhulsten Island (Burlington Island) in the South River (now the Delaware River), to Kievitshoek (now Old Saybrook, Connecticut) at the mouth of the Verse River (now the Connecticut River) and further north at Fort Nassau on the Mauritius or North River (now the Hudson River), near what is now Albany. By day, the men left their walled village, which Director General Stuyvesant had named "Wiltwyck," to go out and farm their fields, leaving the women and children largely confined within the stockade. A similar theme, at greater length, was taken up by writer Elizabeth Bear, who published the "New Amsterdam" series of detective stories that take place in a world where the city remained Dutch until the Napoleonic Wars and retained its name also afterward. NEW AMSTERDAM. Trading in food, wood, and animals with the British West Indies enriched the city’s merchants. Relations with the Indians remained good, and the fur trade continued to prosper until 1641, when hostilities with the natives broke out in a conflict known as Governor Kieft's War. After arriving off the coast of Cape Cod, Hudson eventually sailed into the mouth of a large river, today called the Hudson River. Why was the colony of New Amsterdam different then other colonies? [15] In 1642 the new director-general Willem Kieft decided to build a stone church within the fort. The factory became a settlement outside Fort Amsterdam. © 2019 Encyclopedia.com | All rights reserved. Beginning in the 17th century, enslaved men and women began to visit Amsterdam, and it was not uncommon for wealthy plantation owners to bring their most loyal black servants back from the colonies to visit the city. In New Amsterdam, 375 Africans made up about a fourth of the population. How long will the footprints on the moon last? Encyclopedia.com. Although Wiltwyck, the second large settlement established north of New Amsterdam, grew quickly, the very successes of the Stuyvesant administration put New Netherland in danger. Stuyvesant corresponded with company officials in the Netherlands about the need to import more enslaved Africans. While some decided to take advantage of the offer, only Kiliaen van Rensselaer followed through.

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